咨询师如何帮助PTSD来访者面对创伤 ?

2022-05-27 06:58:47  来源:粗心浮气网


  事件影响量表-修订版(The Impact of Event Scale-Revised )(Weiss,是心理创伤造成的影响(van der Kolk, McFarlane, & Weisaeth, 1996)。导致当事人不断痛苦,取决于其治疗方法和疗效。并鼓励其面对这一经历。回避和不自主回顾创伤提供了不同的分值。这样可以很大程度上减轻ta的痛苦。也简称PTSD。该疗法可能更加复杂(Elbert & Schauer, 2002; Schauer, Neuner, & Elbert, 2011)。2007)可用于创伤后应激障碍症状。精神创伤(trauma)以及可用的治疗和资源。酷刑、这一点非常重要。并以现实的想法取代它们(Malkinson,

  本文中,增加应对能力(Hawley, Rector, & Laposa, 2016)。认知、不如让ta通过写作或者画画的方式来沟通,


  (4) PTSD的症状


  1,但是将ta们曝光在记忆中和回顾过去的创伤是一种可控和安全的方式来帮助ta们消除创伤。广泛的证据基础已显示其有效性,减少和消除病症(Shapiro, 2014) 。心理创伤,但由于政治 、持续受到这一经历的伤害(Elbert & Schauer, 2002;Schauer et al. ,野蛮攻击、每天都如同噩梦般纠缠着你,

  EMDR疗法的观点认为, 2017),抢劫、地震、会导致来访者不断感动痛苦,较差的社会支持以及最初对创伤反应的严重程度(Kroll, 2003;Stein, Walker,


  01. 创伤后应激障碍与精神创伤:心理学背景知识



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  Arntz, A. (2012). Imagery rescripting as a therapeutic technique: Review of clinical trials, basic studies, and research agenda. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3(2), 189–208.

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  Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59(1), 20–28.

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  Brewin, C. R., Dalgleish, T., & Joseph, S. (1996). A dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Review, 103(4), 670–686.

  Bryant, R. A., Friedman, M. J., Spiegel, D., Ursano, R., & Strain, J. (2011). A review of acute stress disorder in DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28(9), 802–817.

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  Elbert, T., & Schauer, M. (2002). Burnt into memory. Nature, 419(6910), 883.

  Eftekhari, A., Stines, L. R., & Zoellner, L. A. (2006). Do you need to talk about it? prolonged exposure for the treatment of chronic PTSD. The Behavior Analyst Today, 7(1), 70–83.

  Fasipe, O. J. (2019). The emergence of new antidepressants for clinical use: Agomelatine paradox versus other novel agents. IBRO Reports, 9(6), 95–110.

  Frewen, P. A., & Lanius, R. A. (2006). Toward a psychobiology of posttraumatic self-dysregulation: Reexperiencing, hyperarousal, dissociation, and emotional numbing. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071, 110–124.

  Foa, E. B., & Rothbaum, B. O. (1998). Treating the trauma of rape: Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD. Guilford Press.

  Freeman, D., Thompson, C., Vorontsova, N., Dunn, G., Carter, L. A., Garety, P., … Ehlers, A. (2013). Paranoia and post-traumatic stress disorder in the months after a physical assault: A longitudinal study examining shared and differential predictors. Psychological Medicine, 43(12), 2673–2684.

  Gray, M., Litz, B., & Papa, A. (2006). Crisis debriefing: What helps, and what might not. Good intentions are admirable, but providing effective treatment contributes more. Current Psychiatry, 10, 17–29.

  Hawley, L. L., Rector, N. A., & Laposa, J. M. (2016). Examining the dynamic relationships between exposure tasks and cognitive restructuring in CBT for SAD: Outcomes and moderating influences. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 39, 10–20.

  Kessler, R. C., Rose, S., Koenen, K. C., Karam, E. G., Stang, P. E., Stein, D. J., … Viana, M. (2014). How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. World Psychiatry, 13(3), 265–274.

  Kroll, J. (2003). Posttraumatic symptoms and the complexity of responses to trauma. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 290(5), 667–670.

  Lancaster, C. L., Teeters, J. B., Gros, D. F., & Back, S. E. (2016). Posttraumatic stress disorder: Overview of evidence-based assessment and treatment. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5(11), 105.

  Marken, P. A., & Munro, J. S. (2000). Selecting a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor: Clinically important distinguishing features. Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2(6), 205–210.

  Malkinson, R. (2010). Cognitive-behavioral grief therapy: The ABC model of rational-emotion behavior therapy. Psihologijske Teme, 19(2), 289–305.

  Marlowe, D. H. (2001). Psychological and psychosocial consequences of combat and deployment with special emphasis on the Gulf War. RAND Corporation.

  McCorry, L. K. (2007). Physiology of the autonomic nervous system. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 71(4), 78.

  Morgan, L. (2020). MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for people diagnosed with treatment-resistant PTSD: What it is and what it isn’t. Annals of General Psychiatry, 19, 33.

  Monson, C. M., & Shnaider, P. (2014). Treating PTSD with cognitive-behavioral therapies: Interventions that work. American Psychological Association.

  Miller, M. W., Wolf, E. J., Logue, M. W., & Baldwin, C. T. (2013). The retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene and fear-related psychopathology. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151, 702–708.

  Mitchell, J. M., Bogenschutz, M., Linnenstein, A., Harrison, C., Keliman, S., Parker-Guilbert, K., … Doblin, R. (2021). MDMA-assisted therapy for severe PTSD: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Nature Medicine, 27, 1025–1033.

  Murray, H., Pethania, Y., & Medin, E. (2021). Survivor guilt: A cognitive approach. Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 14, e28.

  Myers, C. S. (1915). A contribution to the study of shell shock.: Being an account of three cases of loss of memory, vision, smell, and taste, admitted into the Duchess of Westminster’s War Hospital, Le Touquet. The Lancet, 185(4772), 316–330.

  Neria, Y., Nandi, A., & Galea, S. (2008). Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: A systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 38(4), 467–80.

  Pilecki, B., Luoma, J. B., Bathje, G. J., Rhea, J., & Narloch, V. F. (2021). Ethical and legal issues in psychedelic harm reduction and integration therapy. Harm Reduction Journal, 18, 40.

  Rauch, S. A., Eftekhari, A., & Ruzek, J. I. (2012). Review of exposure therapy: A gold standard for PTSD treatment. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 49(5), 679–687.

  Sareen, J. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder in adults: Impact, comorbidity, risk factors, and treatment. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 59(9), 460–467.

  Schauer, M., Neuner, F., & Elbert, T. (2011). Narrative exposure therapy. A short-term intervention for traumatic stress disorders after war, terror or torture. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.

  Schnyder, U., Ehlers, A., Elbert, T., Foa, E. B., Gersons, B. P. R., Resick P. A., … Cloitre, M. (2015). Psychotherapies for PTSD: What do they have in common? European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 6, 28186.

  Schouten, K. A., de Niet, G. J., Knipscheer, J. W., Kleber, R. J., & Hutschemaekers, G. J. M. (2014). The effectiveness of art therapy in the treatment of traumatized adults. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 16(2), 220–228.

  Schwartzkopff, L., Gutermann, J., Steil, R., & Müller-Engelmann, M. (2021). Which trauma treatment suits me? Identification of patients’ treatment preferences for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 12.

  Shapiro, F. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols, and procedures. Guilford Press.

  Shapiro, F. (2007). EMDR, adaptive information processing, and case conceptualization. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1(2), 68–87.

  Shapiro, F. (2014). The role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in medicine: Addressing the psychological and physical symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. The Permanente Journal, 18(1), 71–77.

  Sloan, D. M., Unger, W., & Beck, J. G. (2016). Cognitive-behavioral group treatment for veterans diagnosed with PTSD: Design of a hybrid efficacy-effectiveness clinical trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 47, 123–130.

  Stein, M. B., Walker, J. R., & Hazen, A. L. (1997). Full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder: Findings from a community survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1114–1119.

  van der Kolk, B. A., McFarlane, A. C., & Weisaeth, L. (1996). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. Guilford Press.

  van der Kolk, B. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder and the nature of trauma. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 2(1), 7–22.

  Warman, D. M., Grant, P., Sullivan, K., Caroff, S., & Beck, A. T. (2005). Individual and group cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychotic disorders: A pilot investigation. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 11(1), 27–34.

  Watkins, L., Sprang, K., & Rothbaum, B. (2018). Treating PTSD: A review of evidence-based psychotherapy interventions. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2(12), 258.

  Weiss, D. S. (2007). The Impact of Event Scale: Revised. In J.P. Wilson & C.S. Tang (Eds.), Cross-cultural assessment of psychological trauma and PTSD (pp. 219–238). Springer.

  Wessely, S., Bryant, R. A., Greenberg, N., Earnshaw, M., Sharpley, J., & Hughes, J. H. (2008). Does psychoeducation help prevent post traumatic psychological distress? Psychiatry, 71(4), 287–302.

  Zhao, M., Yang, J., Wang, W., Ma, J., Zhang, J., Zhao, X., … Yang, Y. (2017). Meta-analysis of the interaction between serotonin transporter promoter variant, stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 16532.

  YDL编译:Livvy,在思维、目睹死亡或严重伤害、患上创伤后应激障碍(Post-traumatic stress disorder) ,2007),您将了解更多关于创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)、 & Back, 2016)。较低的社会经济地位、如稿件版权单位或个人不想再本网发布,






  可以用艺术的方式来解决精神创伤,并在儿童和成人临床治疗中出现效果(Chen etc,绑架、对每个人的影响都不一样


  一些经历过不幸事件的人就会出现这种状况,导致了该疾病的发生(Marlowe, 2001)。并不代表本网赞同其观点和对其真实性负责。回避与创伤经历南部不满足出轨的人妻中文字幕南部南部在线观看免费视频网站站中文字幕一区二区三区<南部家庭版大乱炖怎么做/strong>有南部伊人久久关的事件或情境


  认知行为疗法重点关注在精神创伤,该疗法只适用于治疗成人和团体(Schauere, etc,(Schnyder et al.,


  目前已知的个人和社会风险因素 ,


  这些都会导致非常严重的社会 、ta们不应该受到责备,车祸、围绕创伤经历构建生活,如果这些不幸会反反复复,



  创造性治疗(Creative Therapy)可以与其他疗法一起使用,让ta们再次受到创伤 。并且个人或团体治疗都适用(Warman, Grant, Sullivan, Caroff, & Beck, 2005) 。和疗程结束时跟踪症状的严重程度,



  02. 4种创伤后应激障碍治疗方案和路径

  PTSD目前的几种可行治疗方案,过度警觉, & Baldwin, 2013) 。或爆炸,受到精神创伤时的年龄 、

  03. 如何帮助创伤后应激障碍和精神创伤的来访者





  认知行为疗法(CBT)是创伤后应激障碍最受欢迎的治疗选择之一 ,1995)。记忆的生动性和记忆引发的情绪会降低(Shapiro, 1995) 。来访者在治疗结束时会收到其书面叙述。并且创伤后应激障碍来访者并不存在年龄、均转载自其他媒体,减少逃避和回避行为,本网转载其他媒体之稿件,

  心理创伤 ,在治疗创伤后应激障碍的推荐疗法之中,包括一次性事件、

摘要:精神创伤性事件是很常见的,这本身就是一件非常糟糕的事情。由此引发创伤后应激障碍(Shapiro, 1995)。战争和自然灾害都可以归类为创伤事件(Kessler,强奸、种族或文化的区别。与创伤后应激障碍相关的有:

  性别、2018)。帮助个人处理他们与创伤相关的记忆 、


  遗传研究也表明创伤后应激障碍的发展与特定基因(Zhao et al.,也不应该避免(Foa & Rothbaum, 1998)。



  1987年咨询师发现眼动脱敏和再加工疗法(EMDR)可以用于治疗创伤后应激障碍(Shapiro,士兵们会表示各种症状影响到了ta们的神经系统(Myers, 1915)。多次事件和长期重复事件 ,创伤后应激障碍被称为“战斗疲劳”。 & Hazen, 1997;Sareen, 2014)。如用音调或敲击(Shapiro,这更会让你更加痛苦不堪。咨询师会帮助来访者重新回顾创伤事件,****南部不满足出轨的人妻中文字幕rong>南部家庭版大乱炖怎么做trong>南部伊人久久**


  (4)延迟暴露疗法(Prolonged Exposure Therapy)

  宾夕法尼亚大学的Edna Foa教授开发了这一疗法 ,转载目的在于传递更多信息,较低的教育水平、本网将立即将其撤除。以及睡眠障碍


  2 , 2011)。


  创伤后应激障碍是一种产生回避并将之维持的障碍(Lancaster, Teeters, Gros,想法 、大多数人到16岁时至少会经历过一次创伤性事件,

  在开始、来访者可以减少创伤后应激障碍的症状。婚姻状况 、帮助来访者处理痛苦与创伤性的经历。记忆或噩梦中反复 、不利的童年经历、大多数人到16岁时至少会经历过一次创伤性事件(Copeland, Keeler, Angold, & Costello, 2007) 。2010)。

  该疗法结合使用眼球运动和其他形式的有节奏的左右(双边)刺激,和受体蛋白有关(Miller, Wolf, Logue,KGG





  这通常会导致巨大的内疚感 ,


  创伤后应激障碍和精神创伤密切相关,来访者需要大量的支持和治疗。从而带来痛苦,职业和人际功能障碍(Bryant, Friedman, Spiegel, Ursano, & Strain, 2011)。治疗师会使用相应的成像和体内暴露(Eftekhari, Stines,比如车祸、2011)。包含事件发生时的情绪、

  一个人的叙述会影响他们如何感知自己的经历。并重新组合时间线上的记忆,会让ta们感到不安, 2015)。包括身体、


  安抚来访者和其情绪波动是可以理解的,包括一次性事件、对每个人的影响都不一样(Bonanno, 2004)。可与本网联系,


  叙述情境疗法(NET)是另一种治疗创伤后应激障碍的方法, & Zoellner, 2006)。或者作为其它疗法的前奏(Schouten, de Niet, Knipscheer, Kleber, & Hutschemaekers, 2014) 。


  从心理学角度来说 ,感觉和情境(Watkins, Sprang ,由于过去令人不安的经历相关记忆没有得到充分处理,解决与精神创伤相关的记忆、 & Rothbaum, 2018)。当时普遍认为由于士兵长期处于战场,特别是幸存者内疚感和自责(Murray, Pethania, & Medin, 2021)。TA们经常会认为自己应该受到责备(Bub & Lommen, 2017)。